The Comprehensive Peace Agreement Of Southern Sudan

Posted Dezember 18th, 2020 by admin

The process resulted in the following agreements (also known as protocols): under constant pressure from the international community, the UN Security Council, the UN Secretary-General and his Special Representative for Sudan, the African Union and IGAD, the parties agreed to resume peace talks on 7 October 2004 in Nairobi. Three agreements had to be concluded to reach a comprehensive peace agreement: one on permanent ceasefire agreements, the other on the implementation of all signed protocols and the other, which has yet to be concluded through permanent ceasefire agreements, and the other on international/regional guarantees. Given the long history of the failure of negotiations between the ASC and SPLM/A, the signing of the CPA in January 2005 was welcomed by the governments of the North, The South and foreign countries. The CPA established an interim constitution for Sudan, which established the division of power between the ASC and SPLM/A at the national level, which provided for a semi-autonomous regional government in the South led by SPLM/A, developed an oil revenue-sharing formula and called on the state to hold a referendum on self-determination in the South in 2011. The CPA signatories and international interlocutors who facilitated the agreement saw the period leading up to the referendum as an opportunity for the ruling ASC to launch democratic reforms, demonstrating the benefits of Sudanese unity and encouraging South Sudanese to vote against South Sudan`s independence in 2011. The Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) was signed on 9 January 2005 in Kenya by the National Congress Party (NCP) and the Sudan People`s Movement/Army (SPLM/A). The CPA marked the end of two decades of civil conflict and was the culmination of peace negotiations, supported by the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), as well as the United Kingdom, Norway, the United States and Italy. The CPA was a last attempt to find a comprehensive and lasting solution to the conflict that had divided North and South Sudan since its independence from The Egyptian and British dominations in 1956. The first phase of the conflict ended in 1972 with the signing of the Addis Ababa Agreement, negotiated by Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie.

But in 1983, jafaar Numeiri, then president, violated the terms of the agreement by reducing the prerogatives of the South, imposing Sharia law and resuming the war. The CPA is based on a collection of documents negotiated and signed over a two-year period. It consists of six documents: the Machakos Protocol of July 2002, the agreement on security arrangements in September 2003; The January 2004 Asset Distribution Agreement; The May 2004 Power-Sharing Protocol; The May 2004 Protocol on Conflict Resolution in South Kordofan and Blue Nile States; and the May 2004 Protocol on Conflict Resolution in the Abyei region.

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